Nanobody is the variable domain of heavy-chain-only antibody (HcAbs), which is 4 nm in length, 2.5 nm in width, and only 15 kD in molecular weight, due to the lack of the light chains (L) and heavy chain constant domain (CH) compared with conventional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs).
Nanobodies have unique properties such as small size, excellent solubility, superior stability, quick clearance from blood, and deep tissue penetration. As a result, nanobodies have become a promising tool for the diagnosis and therapy of diseases.
The antigen-binding capacity of nanobodies is similar to conventional antibodies for three reasons. First, the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of nanobodies is similar or even longer than that of human VH domain (variable domain of heavy immunoglobulin chain).
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